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第一章 概论

数字资产管理是英语技术词汇Digital Asset Management的直接翻译。其主要任务和工作是围绕着数字资产(Digital Asset)的获取、标记、索引、存储以及提取等处理和管理过程展开,主要应用于数字摄像、动画制作、视频与音乐创作以及游戏制作等创意产业。数字资产管理同时还指代了数字媒体资源文件相关的下载、重命名、备份、评价、群组、存档、优化、保存、精简以及导出等处理过程的协议。

媒体资源管理(Media Asset Management),从一定程度上,可以视为数字资产管理的一个子集,主要集中于对数字视频和音频内容的处理。一般意义上的数字媒体资源管理系统,指的是帮助进行数字媒体资源管理的计算机软件以及硬件系统。而最近提出的所谓企业内容管理则是具有类似任务特性一类解决方案,但是后者的范围更加广泛,且更注重于工业级应用。

本书内容将围绕数字媒体资源管理展开,将主要讲述数字媒体资源的存储、保护、检索、利用。重点是数字媒体格式及处理转换、多媒体数据库、数字版权保护、多媒体网络通信、数字媒体资源检索、常用的管理软件等。本书还将通过动画游戏制作中的媒体资源管理和数字图书馆的建设等为实际案例的介绍,展示现代大型数字资源管理技术的重要性和应用价值。

1.1 内容管理的历史发展

数字媒体资源管理并非是一个全新的概念。简单的讲,它就是人们组织数字媒体内容的一种方式。所以我们可以从人们如何认识内容管理的重要性谈起。自人类文明诞生以来,我们的各种内容文化,这就是所谓的信息。这种信息一直被文字、图像、音乐等等各种形式被创造出来,以视声光电等各种方式表达,最后由于各种原因而被交换。在古代,作为信息的载体是石刻、竹简、羊皮纸、壁画等等,然后逐渐过度到纸质的书籍,甚至广义上的雕塑乃至建筑都可以视为信息的一种载体。为了保存这些非常有用的人类文化结晶,一个古老的行业应运而生。

内容管理系统(Content Management System,简称CMS)是指在一个合作模式下,用于管理工作流程的一套制度。该系统可应用于手工操作中,也可以应用到电脑或网络里。作为一种中央储存器(Central Repository),内容管理系统可将相关内容集中储存并具有群组管理、版本控制等功能。版本控制是内容管理系统的一个主要优势。 内容管理系统在信息、数据的存储、管理、修订(盘存)、内容充实、文档发布等方面有着广泛的应用。现在流行的开源CMS系统有Joomla!、Drupal、Xoops等。

内容是任何类型的数字信息的结合体,可以是文本、图形图像、Web页面、业务文档、数据库表单、视频、声音、XML文件等。应该说,内容是一个比数据、文档和信息更广的概念,是对各种结构化数据、非结构化文档、信息的聚合。管理就是施加在“内容”对象上的一系列处理过程,包括收集、存储、审批、整理、定位、转换、分发、搜索、分析等,目的是为了使“内容”能够在正确的时间、以正确的形式传递到正确的地点和人。

广义上,内容管理可以定义为:协助组织和个人,借助信息技术,实现内容的创建、储存、分享、应用、检索,并在企业个人、组织、业务、战略等诸方面产生价值的过程。而内容管理系统就是能够支撑内容管理的一种工具或一套工具的软件系统。当然狭义上,内容管理系统通常是指门户或商业网站的发布和管理系统。其表现形式其实还是比较宽泛,包括个人网站系统,网络维基系统(Wiki),个人博客系统(Blog)均可视为不同形式的内容管理系统。内容管理系统一般存在以下特点:

  • 有利于为数众多的人员投稿、编辑及分享所存储的数据;
  • 以类似于人力资源职位管理的方式,根据用户的角色控制他们对于以上数据的访问和使用的权限。比如Joomla 系统中,就可以让不同的用户组在网站文章的撰写、修改、发布等方面,具有不同的权限,或者让指定用户访问或管理指定的栏目或内容;
  • 有助于快捷简便地存储数据及检索到所需要的数据;
  • 减少资料的重复录入工作;
  • 降低工作报告写作的难度;
  • 加强用户间的交流。

内容管理的出现,使得各大国际跨国公司开始考虑将之运用于市场营销领域,用视频、动画、网页、印刷品等构建立体完整的多媒体品牌营销体系。然而,单纯的内容管理系统还无法满足各种企事业单位对于大规模数字媒体内容的需求,这就促成了专门的面向数字媒体数据内容的管理系统出现。

1.2 数字资产管理

数字资产管理并非是一下子冒出来的概念。数码相机所拍摄的图像,从互联网下载的音乐,甚至是同事发给你邮件所附带的文档,这些都是你每天通过文件目录结构以及标签等来管理的数字资产(文件)。但是当你面对成千上万的文件时,需要与分布在世界各地的合作者或者用户分享内容时,最重要的是你需要你的组织所需的重大价值,那么你需要比操作系统可提供的,更有力且更有效的方式来管理这些资源。

移动办公。试想你带着手提电脑旅行,但单位的文件服务器却不工作了。虽然那些在你手提电脑上被精心组织的文件目录结构,但当其他人问你要一个你手头没有的文件时,生产效率就没有了。又比如当你在路上,你办公室的文件服务器如何起作用?数字资产管理系统则可使得所有的文件对授权用户都可用,而且可以用通过浏览器访问到。

被唯一设计的信息。操作系统所支持的元数据(metadata)是固定的,即你很难添加新的自定义数据域,或者修改现有数据域来适应你的工作流程。数字资产管理系统就应该能通过简易的交互,使得你去创建任意的所需元数据域。

文件属于不止一个地方。快捷方式以及别名是比较累赘的方式来管理属于多个项目的文件,即使将资源复制也不管用。因为很难预计需要多少份备份才是真正所需的。在基于数字资产管理的理念,单个文件可与任意个项目相关联,可在任意时间进行资源的分配或者修改。

找到父亲,找到子节点。操作系统没有提供方法去明白图像或者其他文件如何的用于布局或者表示。但是数字资产管理系统可以做到快速地展示一个布局所需的文件,甚至系统可以自动地分类(catalog)在布局所需的未分类文件。

轻松实现安全需求。在操作系统中指定文件的访问权限非常复杂,所以容易导致没有任何安全控制,这对于有价值的资产来说是个坏想法。数字资产管理系统的权限非常容易控制,且系统可以基于管理者的认可(approval),禁令(embargo)或者许可过期时限,授权或者重新指定文件权限,甚至做到实时地实现。

解放生产力。在不同操作系统之间共享文件是具有挑战的任务。DAM系统可平等地服务于所有用户,而不必区分用户使用怎样的计算机,来自网络远端或者是互联网。

总之,操作系统可看作是一个大仓库,而DAM系统可视为你的创意控制系统、安全保镖、生产管理员和全球情报服务集于一身。

1.3 数字媒体资源管理系统

数字媒体资源管理系统一般由资源编录;发现和使用资源;管理元数据;以及分发资源等这四个步骤组成。

1.3.1 资源编录

资源编录即cataloging assets,编目(cataloging)描述了从文件中提取信息(元数据)的过程,以及为每个文件将这些信息打包成可供搜索的数据库纪录(资源纪录)。每一个数据库就是一个目录。

元数据是用于描述文件的信息,例如文件名、类型、创建日期等。在微软的word文档中你输入的是文件内容,而另一面文件名,大小,存储位置,创建时间等是文件的元数据。所有的数字文件都包含了至少一些基本元数据,而一些文件格式则包含了丰富的元数据(a wealth of metadata)。

数字媒体资源管理系统应该要做到能从任意的数字文件中搜集基本元数据,使得整个系统有用而不管在你的组织中采用何种形式的文件格式。另外,数字媒体资源管理系统还应为常用文件格式提供“增强型元数据支持”,这样可使得程序可以提取格式相关的元数据,例如数码相机的型号,焦距曝光,快门速度,GPS位置坐标等等。(一个例子可在http://www.canto.com/filters 找到)。文件可通过拖放(dragging and dropping)交互将他们进行自动编目。

数字媒体资源管理系统同时还使得你能编辑来自文件提取的元数据,并可添加新的元数据。一般的数字媒体资源管理系统会支持很多元数据域类型,包括在下拉菜单,复选框,彩色标签,评分以及音频标注等。你可以根据需要为一个目录添加许多元数据域。

1.3.2 发现和使用资源

The metadata in your asset records is the basis for how files are found. So, the more descriptive your metadata, the easier it will be for users to find what they need. DAM offers several ways in which to search for files.

For quick file browsing, DAM offers categories. Double-click on a category and see all files assigned to it. You can use as many categories as you need, and you can nest them to create hierarchies. Assign assets to categories via drag and drop. A given asset can be assigned to any or all categories, and assignments can be changed at any time.

DAM also enables you to type words or phrases to find files, as you do with Internet search engines. For complex searching, multi-conditional search queries that can be created and shared with other users. For example: “Find all PowerPoint files assigned to me, whose licenses have been verified by Legal, that are rated 5-stars, and that are not labeled red.”

A query this complex isn’t even possible using standard operating system search tools, but DAM makes it easy to configure and share.

The results of virtually all queries appear instan- taneously, thanks to the lightening-fast Cumulus database engine—even when searching through catalogs of hundreds of thousands of assets. DAM was designed for metadata handling, so optimizations for finding files based on diverse metadata are built right in.

What’s more, all search options are available also to users connected via Web browsers. Once assets are found, DAM provides several ways for users to access them for use, including dragging and dropping them into local folders, or even directly into popular programs like Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Photoshop and InDesign. (Drag and drop works into many other applications too.)

DAM also enables users to “check out” files for editing. Once edits are complete, the file is checked-in again, and a “history” entry is made that describes the edits. Previous versions can remain available indefinitely, so files are never lost to editing mistakes, and Cumulus version control works with any asset format.

1.3.3 管理元数据

During an asset’s lifetime, its production sta- tus, availability, usage history and other attributes change. These attributes are each represented (or defined) by the file’s metadata. Managing that metadata helps ensure your files are properly tagged, secured and accounted for.

Some metadata management involves determin- ing who should have access to each file. When using a file system to manage files, many organi- zations rely on folder structures to determine access—files in development go in a “Work In Progress” folder; when they’re ready, they’re moved into an “Available” folder, or something along those lines.

When using Cumulus, you never need to worry about where a file is physically stored. Cumulus serves as your asset “gatekeeper,” and access is controlled via metadata and other permissions options. As a file evolves from one stage of its life to another, all that needs to change is meta- data—no file moving, no file copying.

One of the benefits of this is that files are always where you expect them to be, ready for safe backup or access by applications—and you don’t risk damaging or losing them in file copies.

Plus, you can base a file’s evolution from on stage to another on rules you set, rather than where it’s physically located. Consider the sim- ple question: When is a file available for use?

The answer to this question varies between orga- nizations, but common considerations include: • Approved by management — Has the file been approved by an art director or other authority? • Usage permitted by license — Has Legal con- firmed the file can be used? • File suitability — Is the image you’re about to place in the new ExxonMobil brochure the same image placed into the BP brochure by your London office last year?

When considering the many rules and judgements humans use when choosing files, it becomes clear how poorly suited operating sys- tem folders and permissions are for the task of asset control. Just the three conditions above demonstrate how long the process of determin- ing an asset’s readiness would take when approvals and verifications are conducted via email, phone calls or overnight couriers.

Using DAM, metadata fields can serve as a “checklist” to verify a file’s current state, making it clear to a designer or other employee when an asset is suitable for use. An asset can be approved—or have a previous approval revoked—within seconds, from any Internet connected computer worldwide.

Some Cumulus editions make it easy to prevent assets that are not approved for use from even appearing to users. And all Cumulus systems can automatically check metadata fields for expira- tions and other conditions you define, and update other metadata values (like status) accordingly. In addition to managing asset metadata, which helps you find and secure your files, and deter- mine their readiness, Cumulus also enables you to manage entire projects through the use of cat- egory metadata.

Hiding behind each Cumulus category is a set of metadata fields you define. As with asset record metadata fields, you can add as many category metadata fields as you need. To best understand the value of category meta- data, consider a project and some common attributes associated with it: • Project name & details • List of contributors • Approval authorities • Due date By adding these category metadata fields to a cat- alog, you’re ready to create and manage new projects just by creating new categories.

1.3.4 分发资源

File distribution rounds out the four most common DAM activities. You might publish a collection of assets to CD/ DVD or the Web, or you might want to make assets available for sale over the Internet. Even the process of “collecting for output” when you’re sending files to a professional printer is a type of distribution.

For CD/DVD production, DAM can copy files you select to “staging” areas where your disc-burning software can burn discs. The advantage here is that you don’t need to manu- ally find files—DAM knows exactly where every file is, even if it’s on another continent.

DAM Web clients make Web publishing easy. Unlike the Web options of other DAM systems, the Cumulus Web clients require no addi- tional configurations—they use the same permissions and layouts as are used in the Mac OS and Windows LAN software clients. Plus, DAM publishes “live” catalogs to the Web— not catalog copies. So any changes made through the LAN clients are reflected on the Web instantly, and vice versa.

A collection basket feature in the Web clients makes it easy for users to gather files for down- load. Integrate the collection basket with order fulfillment systems if you need to process credit card transactions. When manually processing orders, you can offer for-position-only versions of your files and with- hold the full resolution assets until payment is processed.

Watermarking options include visible marks that support your brand or indicate usage restrictions, and an advanced watermarking technology that embeds invisible marks into images that can even withstand edits. If a portion of a protected image is copied into another document, the invisible mark remains detectable, enabling you to identify your images indefinitely.

Distribution also describes sharing files across your organization, such as making sales materi- als accessible to your remote Sales staff from any Internet connection. DAM permissions are flexible enough to enable you to get certain assets to certain people, while restricting access to others. This makes it easy to ensure the folks in Sales don’t access something that’s not ready, or that one client doesn’t see the files of another.

1.4 数字媒体资源管理应用

数字媒体资源管理系统被广为用于各类成长型公司,使得他们通过在内容技术前沿投资,使得增强在市场中的竞争力。

Through its Website content management system products and services, DAM delivers innovative and ROI-centered solutions that streamline procedures, untangle processes and allow clients to create, manage and deliver content more flexibly and cost-efficiently.

Our extensive experience with integrated Website content management systems, coupled with our deep understanding of publishing in all forms, position DAM as a unique provider to any organization looking to extend the reach and value of its content.

Media and entertainment companies, B2B publishers as well as universities and other educational institutions represent the industries DPCI most commonly services. DAMS owner within these industries have solved the following problems:

  1. Streamlining subscription/membership management processes
  2. Creating easy storage and access platforms for published and unpublished content
  3. Implementing workflow management systems for streamlined production
  4. Increased online presence on search engines

1.4.1 媒体娱乐行业的应用

目前世界上最成功的媒体企业都非常需要DAM。这些企业包括纸质书、 杂志、报纸等的出版商,用于沟通材料和目录的市场活动。由于国际出版市场的剧烈变化,各大单位都在持续地寻找流水线处理的新途径,以吸引和保留新的观众,或者最大化这些内容的价值。 对于一个网页内容管理系统或数字资产管理系统,文字挖掘能力和相关的工作流管理是不能看成一个分离的解决方案,而是视为集成于整个企业级内容发布策略的一部分。DAM系统可以为那些媒体娱乐大公司解决这样的问题。整个DAM方案包括:

  • 流水线生产中的工作流管理系统;
  • 为更加动态的网页展示提供网页内容管理系统;
  • 提供印刷和网页发布平台的集成;
  • 用于组织和重用内容的数字资产管理系统;
  • 在实现中始终使用XML相关技术;
  • 在实现中贯彻文字挖掘和自然语言处理策略。

大型的互联网公司,往往采用网页门户来公开地分享各种媒体资源,也往往试大型DAM系统的拥有者。这些DAM系统可以帮助企业更好地完成内容创作、管理、发布等步骤,加快媒体传播流程,

1.4.2 博物馆和文化机构

可以帮助这些机构展示他们的藏品,提升教育计划,传达最新信息,以及为网站的访问者创建交互式社区——这些均是在比较低的价格上予以实现,而不需要特别的专业知识。许多企业正试图通过DAM构建网页目录或者基于网页的销售。博物馆可以藉由网页内容管理系统,流水线化地生产页面,以允许非技术职员能够创造、编辑以及发布在线内容。DAM系统可节约时间和资源消耗,避免内容专家或者馆员被迫依赖于技术专家来更新或编辑机构网站。可以做的事情包括:

  • 完整的网站内容管理服务;
  • 目录以及电子商务内容开发于管理;
  • 数字资产系统解决方案来为机构藏品,创造一个中心化的、易于访问的数据仓库;
  • 搜索引擎优化。

1.4.3 广告公司

DAM can help your customers extend the value of their written content, designs, and brand concepts you’ve created for them. Your clients will be able to publish more effectively to online and print media and streamline access to their digital assets.

Advertising agencies can extend their capabilities by leveraging DPCI’s technical expertise in product selection, implementation, custom development, technical training, and support. Our services have proven to be invaluable resources that help agencies better serve their clients.

DAM empowers clients to manage their own systems, which ensures their independence. As your interactive partner, DAM can help your clients leverage a full suite of services.

DAM implements digital asset management solutions that help your clients organize, search, and access data from a secure, user-friendly repository. This single system lets you repurpose existing assets and legacy content to create new revenue streams. Your clients will maintain brand consistency with all of their published materials by housing all of your content in one access-controlled source.

If your clients need to edit and update their web content faster and more easily, DPCI partners with ad agencies to implement web content management systems. We customize these solutions to enable social, private label, and enthusiast networking functionality, which creates a more interactive experience for site visitors. DPCI can show your clients how their web content management system can be designed to improve your rankings on Google, Yahoo!, and other major search engines.

Your clients face specific workflow challenges that delay production times and increase cost. DPCI customizes software solutions that allow your employees to collaborate, edit, and publish documents online in real-time working with familiar applications. Your employees and clients can also schedule tasks and implement logical workflows and approval processes to help track project progress and facilitate communication.

1.4.4 企业营销中的应用

DAM已有很长的支持营销传播(marketing communication)部门的历史。不管是零售、生活消费品、旅行、床上用品等等,管理数字资产的调整始终存在,通过网页内容管理系统、发布包含印刷、邮件、电视和互联网等多通道内容,以有力地表达品牌。

1.4.5 大学与教育机构

Universities and academic institutions have specific needs that can be directly addressed by Web content management systems. DPCI’s experience in working with major universities has taught us that in order to increase their exposure, build gravitas for their programs, share important news, and recruit the most promising students and faculty, academic institutions must take steps to improve the quality of their online presence.

The solution begins with a web content management system that allows non-technical university staff to quickly and efficiently publish content to the web. While extremely sophisticated, DPCI-implemented web content management software is very easy to use. Every employee can achieve enough proficiency to edit or update content with only minimal training.

Universities also need a dynamic website that connects students, alumni, staff, and the wider educational community. With DPCI’s support, universities can create personalized online experiences for their visitors with customized web content management systems.

For example, social networking could allow prospective students to receive targeted content and communicate with matriculated students online. However, students could be prohibited from accessing various “Faculty Only” portions of the site via secure log-ins and password protection.

By leveraging web content management systems, universities gain many other important benefits. These include:

  • The ability to archive and manage data from a secure, centralized and easy-to-access repository
  • A significant reduction in technology and administrative costs
  • Greatly improved positioning on Google, Yahoo!, and other major search engines.

1.5 小结

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